Cellulose gum is also known as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl ether as well as sodium salt and is modified cellulose polymer.
Cellulose gum has many properties in cosmetic products. It stabilizes emulsions (the mix of oily and watery components), forms a film around hair, skin and nails, as well as it regulates the viscosity of a product. The substance is for instance used in detergents, where it counteracts the dirt setting in the clothes fibres.
Citric acid is a medium strong acid, which is found naturally in citrus fruits. Citric acid may be extracted from fruits, but for industrial purposes, citric acid is mainly produced artificially. Citric acid is added to regulate the acidity (pH-value). Citric acid simultaneously has a preservative effect on the types of bacteria, which cannot grow in low pH environments.
PVP is used in cosmetic products and primarily has two functions: it keeps the product solidified and keeps the components dissolved. It may additionally be used in hair products, where it form a layer of film around and provides a hold on the hair. PVP is used with concentrations of 35% or less .
Sodium bicarbonate (also called soda) is a white chrystalline powder, which is used in cosmetic products and household products, where it works as a pH regulator and is used in dental care means, as the particles can have a smoothening effect and are, thereby, cleansing. The substance is also used in detergents.
Subtilisin is a protein splitting enzyme, which is primarily used in detergents and cleaning products. The enzyme helps remove protein-containing stains. Subtilsin is extracted from a bacteria species called Bacillus subtilis.
Tetrasodium etidronate belongs to the group HEDP phosphonates, which are primarily used in dishwashing soaps, detergents and cleaning products as well as soap. It is added to products in order to bind metal ions like calcium and magnesium, which soften the water and inhibits soap rings in the bath.