Citric acid is a medium strong acid, which is found naturally in citrus fruits. Citric acid may be extracted from fruits, but for industrial purposes, citric acid is mainly produced artificially. Citric acid is added to regulate the acidity (pH-value). Citric acid simultaneously has a preservative effect on the types of bacteria, which cannot grow in low pH environments.
Hexyldecanol is an alcohol, which has a softening and moisturizing effect on the skin and is, therefore, often used in ointments. It is a low viscosity substance, which makes the products easily distributable.
Isostearic acid is a clear, almost scent-free, oily liquid. It is used as a softening ingredient in cosmetic products and furthermore has a stabilizing effect on the texture of the product it is added to.
Phenoxyethanol is an aromatic ether which is used as a preservative.
It is difficult to avoid preservatives in personal care and cleaning/washing since water give rise to good growing conditions for bacteria’s, fungus and mold. If microorganisms are allowed to grow this could, besides destroying the product and limit the durability, also result in a risk for infection for the consumer.
Zinc stearate is used in cosmetic products for colouring the products white due to the substance's white particles, in order to avoid clumping and depositing and in order to increase the viscosity of a product.