Citric acid is a medium strong acid, which is found naturally in citrus fruits. Citric acid may be extracted from fruits, but for industrial purposes, citric acid is mainly produced artificially. Citric acid is added to regulate the acidity (pH-value). Citric acid simultaneously has a preservative effect on the types of bacteria, which cannot grow in low pH environments.
The substance is also known as glycerol or propanetriol and is a thick sugary alcohol, which is part of all fatty substances.
Glycerine is highly hygroscopic i.e. capable of absorbing water/steam from its’ surroundings and thereby retains moisture. This is used in cosmetics, where it is added to creams as a moisturizing and moisture-retaining ingredient.
Glycerine is also added as a stabilizer and emulsifier in order to ease and stabilize the mix of fatty and watery ingredients.
Polyglyceryl-6 caprylate/caprate is an ester-combination, which consists of a mix of 6 glycerine molecules and caprylic and caprinic acid (C8-10 fatty acid).
The substance is added to cosmetic products as an emulsifier – i.e. it enables the mix of oily and watery ingredients and to provide the product with a uniform surface texture. Glycerine equally has softening properties.