The substance is found in the plant, Symphytum Officinallis. The substance used in cosmetics is synthetically produced from other naturally sources. The substance is used as skin conditioning and soothing agent in cosmetics.
Betaine is an amino acid, which is naturally found in animals and plants such as algae and sugar beets. Betaine, which is used in cosmetics, is mostly derived from sugar beets. Betaine, among other things, enables the adjustment of the water balance in cells.
Betaine is used in cosmetic products as an anti-static, softening and moisturizing ingredient as well as it is used in order to control viscosity.
Citric acid is a medium strong acid, which is found naturally in citrus fruits. Citric acid may be extracted from fruits, but for industrial purposes, citric acid is mainly produced artificially. Citric acid is added to regulate the acidity (pH-value). Citric acid simultaneously has a preservative effect on the types of bacteria, which cannot grow in low pH environments.
The substance is also known as glycerol or propanetriol and is a thick sugary alcohol, which is part of all fatty substances.
Glycerine is highly hygroscopic i.e. capable of absorbing water/steam from its’ surroundings and thereby retains moisture. This is used in cosmetics, where it is added to creams as a moisturizing and moisture-retaining ingredient.
Glycerine is also added as a stabilizer and emulsifier in order to ease and stabilize the mix of fatty and watery ingredients.
The substance is found naturally in some fruits such as grapes and bananas and is one of the acids found in wine. The acid is added to foods in order to provide a sour taste and additionally works as an antioxidant. The substance works as a pH buffer in cosmetic products for instance in towelettes and for masking other odours.